June Almeida, umugore. w’umwongereza wavumbuye coronavirus ya mbere ariguhabwa icyubahiro akwiye Inkuru irambuye [Ijabiro.com]

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Icyegeranyo kivuga kubuzima,amateka n’ibikorwa bya nyakwigendera June Almeida wavumbuye coronavirus y’ambere

Nkuko tubikesha igitangaza makuru cy’abongereze BBC News nyuma y’imyaka 13 ishize y’itabye imana ari guhabwa icyubahiro akwiye nk’uwabaye uwambere mu bushakashatsi bwihutishije gusobanukirwa ubwoko bwama virus harimo na coronavirus

Umugore wavumbuye ubwoko bwa mbere bwa coronavirus yibasira abantu yari umukobwa w’umushoferi w’imodoka ya bisi wo muri Scotland mu bwami bw’Ubwongereza, wataye ishuri afite imyaka 16 y’amavuko.
June Almeida yaje kuba inkomarume (pioneer) mu buhanga bwo gutahura ishusho ya za virusi.

Ibikorwa bye biri kongera gutekerezwaho muri iki gihe isi yugarijwe n’icyorezo cya Covid-19, indwara yo mu myanya y’ubuhumekero iterwa n’ubu bwoko bushya bwa coronavirus.
Covid-19 ni indwara nshya ariko iterwa na coronavirus yo mu bwoko bumwe n’ubwavumbuwe bwa mbere na Dr Almeida mu mwaka wa 1964
Iyo coronavirus yayivumburiye muri ‘laboratoire’ ye yo mu bitaro bya St Thomas’ biri mu murwa mukuru London w’Ubwongereza
June Almeida, umugore wavumbuye coronavirus ya mbere"


Uyu muhanga mu bumenyi bwa za virusi (cyangwa udukoko) yavutse yitwa June Hart mu mwaka wa 1930.
Akurira mu nzu y’icumbi iri hafi y’icyanya cya Alexandra Park mu majyaruguru ashyira uburasirazuba bw’umujyi wa Glasgow.
Yataye ishuri amaze kugira ubumenyi bucye bwo mu ishuri, ariko aza kubona akazi ko gukora muri ‘laboratoire’ mu ishami risuzuma imihindagurikire y’utunyangingo tw’umubiri (tissues) kubera indwara, ku bitaro bya Glasgow Royal Infirmary.
Nyuma yaje kwimukira i London gukomeza ibijyanye n’akazi ke, nuko mu mwaka wa 1954 ashakana na Enriques Almeida, umunyabugeni (artist) ukomoka mu gihugu cya Venezuela.

Ubushakashatsi ku bicurane
Bombi n’umwana wabo w’umukobwa bimukiye mu mujyi wa Toronto muri Canada.
George Winter, umwanditsi mu bijyanye n’ubuvuzi, avuga ko mu kigo cy’ubushakashatsi ku ndwara ya kanseri cya Ontario Cancer Institute ari ho Dr Almeida yanonosoreye ibya virusi.
By’umwihariko mu bumenyi buhambaye mu gukoresha icyuma cyo kuzipima cya ‘electron microscope’.
Yatangije uburyo bwo kuzipima neza kurushaho hakoreshejwe ibizirwanya mu mubiri (antibodies), mu rwego rwo kuzikusanyiriza hamwe.
Bwana Winter yabwiye ikiganiro Drivetime cya BBC Radio Scotland ko impano za Dr Almeida zashimwe mu Bwongereza, akareshywa akahagaruka mu 1964.

Agakora ku ishuri ry’ubuvuzi bw’abantu rishamikiye ku bitaro bya St Thomas’ i London.
Ibyo bitaro ni nabyo biherutse kuvura Minisitiri w’intebe w’Ubwongereza Boris Johnson ubwo yari arwaye Covid-19.
Ubwo yari asubiye mu Bwongereza, Dr Almeida yatangiye gukorana na Dr David Tyrrell, wari ukuriye ubushakashatsi ku bicurane (common cold) ahitwa Salisbury mu karere ka Wiltshire.
Bwana Winter avuga ko Dr Tyrrell yari amaze igihe yiga ibijyanye n’isuku yo mu mazuru, ku bari bemeye gukorerwaho ubushakashatsi.
Kandi itsinda rye ryari ryarasanze ko abo bakorerwagaho ubushakashatsi bashoboraga kwadukana virusi nke zifitanye isano n’ibicurane, ariko ko atari ko bose bazigiraga.
Mu gipimo kimwe by’umwihariko cy’abo bakoreweho ubushakashatsi, cyaje kwitwa B814, cyari icy’ibyogejwe mu mazuru y’umunyeshuri wo ku ishuri abanyeshuri biga baba mu kigo.
Ni ikigo cyo mu karere ka Surrey mu majyepfo ashyira uburasirazuba bw’Ubwongereza, hakaba hari mu mwaka wa 1960.

Basanze ko bashoboraga kwanduza ibimenyetso by’ibicurane ku bakorerwaho ubushakashatsi, ariko ko bo batashoboraga kubikuza mu buryo busanzwe bwo muri ‘laboratoire’.
Ariko ubushakashatsi bwagaragazaga ko bishobora gukurira ahandi ku ruhande bitandukanyijwe n’umuntu.
Rero Dr Tyrrell yibazaga niba bishobora kubonwa muri ‘microscope’.
Nuko boherereza ibipimo June Almeida, waje kubona uduce duto twa virusi muri ibyo bipimo, yavuze ko dusa nka virusi za influenza, ariko ko bitameze neza neza cyo kimwe.
Yatahuye icyaje kumenyekana nka coronavirus ya mbere yibasira abantu.

Bwana Winter na Dr Almeida mu by’ukuri bari baranabonye uduce duto tumeze nkayo ubwo bakoraga iperereza ku ndwara y’umwijima yibasira imbeba ndetse n’ibicurane byandura byo mu nkoko.
Ariko, Bwana Winter avuga ko inyandiko y’ubushakashatsi ya Dr Almeida yoherereje ikinyamakuru cy’ubushakashatsi bugenzurwa n’abo mu rwego rumwe mbere yuko butangazwa (peer-reviewed journal), yanzwe ntitangazwe.
Impamvu ngo ni uko “abayigenzura bavuze ko amashusho yakoresheje yari gusa amafoto mabi agaragaza uduce duto twa virusi ya influenza”.

Ubwo buvumbuzi bwe bushya bwo mu gipimo cyiswe B814 bwanditswe mu mwaka wa 1965 mu kinyamakuru cy’ubushakashatsi mu buvuzi bw’abantu cyo mu Bwongereza cya British Medical Journal.
Naho imyaka ibiri nyuma yaho, amafoto ya mbere y’ibyo yari yabonye mu bushakashatsi bwe yatangajwe mu kinyamakuru cy’ubushakashatsi kuri virusi cya Journal of General Virology.
Nkuko Bwana Winter abivuga, ni Dr Tyrrell na Dr Almeida, bafatanyije na Profeseri Tony Waterson wari ukuriye ibitaro bya St Thomas’, bise iyo virusi coronavirus.
Impamvu ngo ni uko ishusho yayo muri ‘microscope’ igaragara nk’uruziga cyangwa urugori, ari byo ‘corona’.

Nyuma Dr Almeida yakoze mu ishuri rikuru ry’ubuvuzi ry’i London – Postgraduate Medical School in London
aho yaherewe impamyabumenyi y’ikirenga.
Yarangirije akazi ke mu kigo Wellcome Institute, aho izina rye ryagaragaye mu bushakashatsi bwinshi mu bijyanye no gutahura imiterere ya za virusi.
Nyuma yo kuva muri Wellcome, Dr Almeida yabaye umwarimu w’umukino ngororangingo wa yoga.
Ariko mu mpera y’imyaka ya 1980, yaje gusubira mu rwego rw’ubushakashatsi kuri za virusi, akabikora nk’umujyanama.

Icyo gihe yafashije mu gufata amashusho mashya ya virusi itera SIDA – izwi nka HIV cyangwa VIH.
June Almeida yapfuye mu mwakwa wa 2007, afite imyaka 77 y’amavuko.
None ubu, nyuma y’imyaka 13 apfuye, ari guhabwa icyubahiro akwiye nk’uwabaye inkomarume mu bushakashatsi bwihutishije gusobanukirwa virusi ubu iri gukwirakwira mu bice bitandukanye byo ku isi.